Runa Simi pantachiqkunamanta – About the Forgers of Runa Simi

Odi Gonzales is professor of Quechua at New York University. Below is his trilingual blog post, in Quechua, Spanish and English, about Runa Simi. Runa Simi is the original term used by indigenous people in the Andes for the language now known as Quechua.

Runa Simi pantachiqkunamanta / Odi Gonzales

Odi Gonzales Quechua NYU

Odi Gonzales

Manaraq españolkuna chayamuqtinku, lluy tawantinsuyu llaqtapi runakuna rimaqku Runa simita. Kay simipi niranku “wakcha” nispa, mana mamayoq, manataytayoq, mana llaqtayoq runata. Chaymi karan wakcha kay; Mamapachapas, unupas manan huk runallaqchu karan, llapankuqmi karan. Ichaqa, chay sunkhasapukuna chayamuqtinku, pantachipunku RunaSimita. Chaymanta pacha kunankama “wakcha” nipunku mana qolqeyoq, mana kaqniyoqta, mana wasiyoq, mana allpayoqta. Manataqmi quechuachu sutinpas karan inkakunaq rimayninkuqa; Runa Simin karan. Ichaqa tayta cura Fray Domingo de Santo Tomasmi sutiyapun chhaynata. Pay yacharan rimayta Runa Simita allintapuni. Chaymi, ñawpaqpi, qhelqaran diccionariota RunaSimimanta. Chay pacha pay  tiyaq Qheswapanpa llaqtapi, chayrayku diccionarionta qhelqayta tukuspa, pay t’iqrasqa español simiman:“kaymi kan Qheswa Simi diccionario” nispa. Manataq chay kuti llapan españolkunachu yacharanku españolta ñawinchayta nitaq rimayta Runa Simita chayqa, paykuna panta pantata yachasqaku tayta curaq rimayninta; chaymanta pacha Runa Simi kapun Quechua. Ichaqa kunankamapas lluy llaqtakunapi manan reqsinkuchu chay “Quechua” nisqata. Sichus qan tapunki huk Qosqo ayllumanta erqeta  “Rimankichu Quechuata?” nispa, chayqa pay nisunki “Ñoqaqa rimanin Runa Simita, manan alqo simitachu” nispa.

De los falseadores del Runa Simi

Cuando no habían llegado aún los españoles, los habitantes de las cuatro regiones del Tawantinsuyu andino hablaban el Runa Simi o lenguaje del hombre. En esta lengua llamaban “wakcha” al huérfano, al paria, al apátrida que desdeñaba o negaba su pueblo o lugar de origen. Eso era ser “wakcha” en aquel tiempo cuando La Madre tierra y el agua no pertenecían a un solo hombre, sino a todos. Pero cuando los barbudos llegaron, falsearon el Runa Simi. Y desde entonces  hasta hoy le dicen “wakcha” a la persona que no tiene dinero ni bienes materiales, al que no tiene casa ni tierra. Tampoco se llamaba Quechua el lenguaje que hablaban los Inkas. Fue el padre Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas quien lo rebautizó de este modo. El sabía hablar bastante bien el Runa Simi; por eso, en tiempos antiguos, escribió un diccionario de Runa Simi. En aquellos tiempos él vivía en el pueblo de Qheswapanpa; por eso, al terminar de escribir su diccionario, él lo había traducido al idioma español, bajo el título: “Este es el diccionario de la lengua Qheswa”. Como en aquel tiempo no todos los españoles sabían leer el español ni menos hablar el Runa Simi, entonces ellos entendieron equivocadamente la palabra del padre y, desde entonces el Runa Simi se convirtió en Quechua. Sin embargo, hasta hoy, en los pueblos andinos ignoran lo que es “Quechua”. Si preguntas a un niño de una comunidad de Cusco “Hablas Quechua?”; él te dirá: “Yo hablo la lengua de los hombres, no de los perros”.

About the Forgers of Runa Simi

When the Spaniards had yet to arrive, the people of the four regions of the Andean Tawantinsuyu spoke Runa Simi, or, the language of the people. In this language they used “wakcha” to describe an orphan, someone without father or mother, or someone who denied their homeland or place of birth. This was to be “wakcha” in the time when Mother Earth and water didn’t belong to an individual, but belonged to everyone. However, when the bearded men arrived, they twisted Runa Simi. From then until now they use “wakcha” for people without money or material wealth, for someone who has no house, no land. Neither was Quechua the name of the language that the Inkas spoke. It was father Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas who renamed the language in this way. He knew how to speak Runa Simi very well; for this reason, many years ago, he wrote a Runa Simi dictionary.  In those times, he lived at the little village of Qheswapanpa; for this reason, when he finished writing his dictionary, he translated it into Spanish under the title “This is the Dictionary of the Qheswa Language.” Since many Spaniards in those times didn’t know how to read Spanish, much less speak Runa Simi, they misunderstood the priest’s words, and from then on Runa Simi become Quechua. However, so far in all Andean communities people ignore that which is “Quechua.” If you ask a child from any village of Cusco, “Do you speak Quechua?”; he will respond to you: “I speak the language of the people, not that of dogs.”

English version translated by Andrew Durham in collaboration with Odi Gonzales.

3 responses to “Runa Simi pantachiqkunamanta – About the Forgers of Runa Simi

  1. Allin yachaq runan qelqasqa, aliin hatunkaray qapaqkuna runasiminmanta. chaymi sonqoy kusikun , ñaupaqman churasqanmanta.
    wayqellay Odi. taytanchischa allinta unanchasuranki. wilaypaq kausanaykipaq

  2. Ay, imaraqmi kunan niñukunacca, manan sumaq rimayninchista yachakuchu. Sumaqmi rimayninchis, manan idioma españolpi allintachu sentimientutapas entindinchischu, runasimipicca hebreo hinapin sumaqllañan entendimiento rimasccanchispacca.
    Allillanya kapuhuay niñucha, navidatacca sumacclaya kankiquis.

  3. Wawqiy ody, kusa chay sumaqta chay pantaykunata chuyanchasqaykimanta. Lliw Runakuna kaykunata yachanmanku. Manataqmi warmnachikuna yachay wasikunapi allintaqa yachachinkunkuchu. Yuyay huntasqa runakunapas, hatun llaqtakunapi manam yachankuchu maypi sarusqankutapas. Llakipayaypaq hinam kanku.
    Qamlla allinlla Wawqiy.

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