Category Archives: Featured Student Work

Map and territory: LIFE TRANSLATED FOR OTHERS (3)

by Santiago Barcaza S.

When the Nobel Prize was given to Beckett, the Swedish Academy considered the set of its texts in English and French as a single work and at the award ceremony, its dedication to “one man, two languages ​​and a third nation” [ Ireland]”.

Beckett is the self-translator who has received more attention and more studies have been done since he was the first to arouse interest in self-translation as a subject of study (Cohn, 1961). The anecdote is the following: the impossibility of finding an English publisher for his texts, considered at the time as untranslatable, caused the author to translate into French his work Murphy, written in English and published in 1938. From 1946, Beckett writes only in French, something that is quite difficult for him, and he translates himself into English. The recognition comes in 1953, year of the appearance of En attendant Godot and Trilogie. The self-translation into English of the first, Waiting for Godot, appears a year later, in 1954, when it is reconciled with the English language. From that moment on, he continues writing in both languages ​​and exchanging the directions of the self-translation.

By the way, to the question, why self-translate? It is not difficult to understand the eagerness of authors like Tagore or Beckett to reach more readers, to ambition as soon as possible a place in the history of universal literature. But there is also another literature. There is a literature that comes from the bosom of cultures that resist extinction, languages ​​that do not give ground to the languages ​​of the colonizers.

odi gonzales
The poet Odi Gonzales

I held a conversation with Odi Gonzales (Cuzco, 1961), poet, translator, self-translator, professor and researcher at NYU, where among other topics we spoke about the Quechua language and its resistance. Here are some fragments of that conversation:

“In a language in danger of extinction, the passage of time will always generate profits and losses. For example, the advent of technological devices and the Internet allow you to communicate with monolingual children from a rural school in the Andes and record the conversation; or make documentaries, movies, photography, etcetera. These records are documents that will not be deleted, they will survive the speakers themselves. That is a gain. But at the same time, these media, with hegemony in Castilian or English, are undermining the speech of monolinguals or bilinguals, who tend to use more the acquired language, to incorporate neologisms into their lexicon”.

And with regard to the orality of the Quechua language, he tells us:

“For example, in the Quechua oral stories, there is no omniscient narrator, since that would make the story implausible: the narrator can not be in two places at once, or know what his characters think. On the other hand, in writing [in the dominant language], the omniscient narrator is crucial, indispensable. Likewise, we believed that Joyce had invented the interior monologue in Ulysses, that paradigm of the modern novel. But the truth is that internal monologue is common practice of oral languages. In Quechua, it is configured exclusively with the pronoun us (ñoqayku), which involves the narrator and his immediate surroundings. The poet speaks for himself and for his own, not for others. The great difference between the interior monologue of a foxs tale and that of Ulysses, is the extension. By its nature, the inner monologue of an oral story is short, precise and concrete, composed only a sentence or two. Instead, Bloom’s inner monologue is a 42-page stream”.

(You can check the complete interview in Spanish here)

With Quechua, Odi talks to us about a kind of oraliture (?). The translations come and go, from the first to the second language and vice versa, and in the turns the words are polished together like stones. As explained by Odi, oral literature as an artistic expression of the Andean cosmovision, marks a cultural continuity between what has been and what it is today. Authors who live in communities and in cities, who permanently travel the path between both spaces. Making their lives territory of coexistence and conflict: between tradition and modernity, between the community and the individual, between the original language and the imposed language. But at the same time, translating, or rather self-translating, the complex message that is transmitted from the oral to the written, and vice versa. Because after all, how do you create a literature that is not written?

Map and territory. A fictitious and real construction at the same time, by authors descendants of peoples and subjugated cultures. A fiction that delimits a territory with diffuse borders, with authors whose mother tongue is the dominant one, but who possess the strength to fulfill the mission of not turning their back on their ancestors.

In the next installment, we will approach the work of Mapuche poets, from the Kenyan Ngugi Wa Thiong’o and we will follow the dialogue with Rodrigo Rojas.

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Thinking Through Milanich’s Children of Fate in Contemporary Times

By Amanda Sommer Lotspike, MA candidate at CLACS

“No Charges Filed Against Off-Duty LAPD Officer,” the headline reads. A video shows a grown white man bearing a gun, clutching the shirt of a child. Another grown white man stands away with his hands in his pockets, while children rush to support the child, who is being dragged by the hands of the grown white man. In the news, the perpetrator’s name is concealed to protect his identity. As he walks free, two children are detained in the Orange County Juvenile Hall.

Today’s February 26. This weekend, forensics teams searched the periphery of the home of the grown white man to protect his private property from future damage. Today’s February 26, and five years have passed since Trayvon Martin’s death. His murderer, a grown man, still walks free. In response to the most recent shooting, The LAPD labor union releases a statement: “an officer has the right to self-defense no matter the age of the offender.”[1]

To talk about recognition and intelligibility under liberalism means engaging with the present. In our Introduction to Latin American and Caribbean Studies II seminar this week, Nara Milanich was invited to speak to our class on the topic of law, filial relations and the production of social inequalities in late nineteenth century Chile. In Children of Fate: Childhood, Class, and the State in Chile, 1850-1930, Milanich traces the paradoxes of liberalism and the ways in which transformations in civil law regarding the family actually re-instated social inequalities. Here, continuity with longstanding social practices rather than rupture, marks the trajectory of the liberal state. One example is the increasing secularization and growth of state power matched by a contradictory emphasis on private rights and personal freedom. Another more pointed example is the function of judicial authorities who characterized children as “too young to ‘determine the use of his person,’” yet acknowledged their self-determination.[2]

During class discussion we drew on contemporary examples of racialized, classed and gendered discourses that castigate certain types of child rearing, and which wield the legal classification of “child” (like “citizen”) as a tool to construct and reinforce social and political hierarchies. I thought about our discussion as I read the news headline today. I thought about the reach of state power in the form of an officer’s gun on a child, while the same state (the legal system) asserts the perpetrator’s private rights by protecting his identity. I thought about how legal definitions of childhood and adulthood fall away when a pillar of the liberal state is held up to scrutiny, when “an officer has the right to self-defense no matter the age of the offender.”

Notes

[1] No Charges Filed Against Off-Duty LAPD Officer, Anaheim Mayor ‘Deeply Disturbed’ By Video. February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2017, from http://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2017/02/23/anaheim-protest-arrests

[2] Milanich, N. B. (2009). Children of fate: Childhood, class, and the state in Chile, 1850-1930. Durham: Duke University Press, 123.