Posted by Ximena Málaga Sabogal, PhD student in Anthropology at NYU
Norma interviews professor Equicio Paxi in Radio Onda Azul
It is 3 am and, if I am to believe my cellphone, it is also -9°C in Puno, Peru. Even if there was heating in the place where I am staying (and there is none) I would probably still be cold. But my excitement compensates the weather as I am heading once again to Radio Onda Azul (ROA) for its “Quechua Rimayninchik” weekday program. Andean music, plenty of jokes, calls from communities far away, but also reflections on the state of indigenous peoples nowadays: all of these and more come together from 3 to 5 am. Chaska and Norma, two women in their early 30s, are in charge of facilitating these exchanges and making sure that the conversation keeps flowing.
Posted by Ximena Málaga Sabogal – PhD student in Anthropology at NYU
It has been a couple of weeks since I arrived in Puno, one of the biggest cities in the southern Peruvian Andes. I have a long history with this city, having researched in the area throughout my bachelor and masters degree. Still, Puno was always a place to go through, in order to get somewhere else. This time I am going to spend two months in the city, going through the archives and talking to people who can somehow enlighten me on my research topic. Although I am an anthropologist, I also have a background in history and always try to bring these two together in my research. I am interested in the Aymara and Quechua identity definitions and its connections with the international indigenous movement.
Who is indigenous? What does it even mean? For a long time, this was not a question being asked in Peru. El problema del Indio (the Indian problem) became a topic at the beginning of the 20th century but the question about who is indio was not put forward until the last decades. As in Latin America more broadly, ethnicity in Peru is constructed through a combination of quite fluid physical and cultural categories that are sometimes claimed as means of self-identification, but more often ascribed by others. During the first half of the 20th century, the category of race became culturized (and culture became racialized) which led to even more complications in the definitions of who the indio was. From an elite and “white” perspective, national progress required de-indianization of the country’s population, to be accomplished through education and literacy, while the growing rural-to-urban migration process watered down distinct cultural characteristics of those who only a decade before were considered by the state as definitely Indian. Velasco Alvarado’s revolutionary government (1968-1975) further advanced the process of de-indianization, although for different reasons, advocating for the use of the term “peasant“.
Kay podcastpi Natalie Povilonis de Vilchez, lingüística yachaq Universidad de Nueva Yorkpi kaspa, Raul Velasquez Palominowan rimanku Antawaylla llaqtapi Peru suyupi. Raul Talavera llaqtapi, Peru suyupi paqarirqa wakpiraq tiyan warminwan iskay churinwan. Paqarisqanmanta iskay simikunata riman wasinpi, kikllupi, ayllunwan, riqsisqankunawan. Payqa iskay simipi educación intercultural bilingüe nisqanta yachachin, rimasaqku llamkananmanta, kawsayninmanta, ayllunmanta ima. Chay kawsasqanmanta willanqa yachananchikpaq.
En este podcast Natalie Povilonis de Vilchez, estudiante de doctorado de lingüística en la Universidad de Nueva York, habla con Raúl Velásquez Palomino en Andahuaylas, Perú. Raúl nació en Talavera, Perú donde todavía vive con su esposa y sus dos hijas. Raúl habla dos lenguas desde su nacimiento. El habla en dos lenguas en contextos familiares y con sus amigos. Él es profesor de Educación Intercultural Bilingüe en Quechua y español. En este Podcast, Natalie y Raul conversan sobre el trabajo que Raúl realiza. Él nos habla acerca de su familia y sus experiencias de vida.
In this podcast Natalie Povilonis de Vilchez, PhD student at New York University, speaks with Raul Velasquez Palomino in Andahuaylas, Peru. He was born in the town of Talavera in Peru, and he still lives there with his wife and two daughters. From birth he has spoken two languages at home and in public, with his family and with his friends. He teaches Intercultural Bilingual Education in Quechua and Spanish. They converse about his work, his way of life, and his family. He tells us about his way of life so that we can learn.